Tribal Networks News

November 7, 2015

Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops

Filed under: Desertification,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 1:34 am

Plos One has published a study that implies that fungal spores can create rain.

From the Abstract:

Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne.

Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation.

More in the full report on http://journals.plos.org/ and archived below as a pdf

Mushrooms as Rainmakers

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November 3, 2014

Trees Make Rain VII – Even the scientists are beginning to figure it out.

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 3:29 pm
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Scientist warns Amazon rainforest losing ability to regulate climate

Despite ‘careful’ phrasing, this article and the research it refers to is very useful support for the notion that we need more forests if we are to survive here for much longer. Big Pharma and its mainstream ‘medicine’ lackeys can make all kinds of definitive claims about their particular brands of snake oil, but when someone is challenging th eonslaught of progress one has to use careful language:

the deterioration of the rainforest – through logging, fires and land clearance – has resulted in a decrease in forest transpiration and a lengthening of dry seasons. This might be one of the factors of the severe drought affecting south-east Brazil.

In fairness, this and other examples of cowardly deference to corporate masters might (!) be coming from the reporter, not the author of the study. In any case, the article has some interesting insights into how mainstream science has been separated from reality:

…science has become so fragmented. Atmospheric scientists don’t look at forests as much as they should and vice versa,” said Nobre, who wrote the report for a lay audience. [when you look into the abyss…?]

Full article in the link above, and archived as pdf here: Amazon_losing_ability_to_regulate_climate

p.s. Of course, in saying that it might be one of the factors the author may have been thinking of HAARP weather weapons as another, but it’s unlikely!

September 5, 2014

Trees Make Rain VI – Biologic Origin of Snowflakes and Raindrops

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 12:42 am
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In Trees Make Rain V we saw how trees enable microbes to put just the right kind of particles in the air to make it rain. It turns out that these are the most productive of all three known types of nucleating particles:

  1.  Meteor dust particles, which serve as ice nucleators mostly at temperatures colder than -15 degrees Celsius);
  2. Inorganic soil particles (mainly clays), which also serve as ice nucleators mostly at temperatures colder than -15 degrees Celsius; and
  3. Biological particles, which serve as ice nucleators temperatures as warm as, or warmer than, -5 degrees Celsius.

This is shown in detail in a paper called “The Biologic Origin of Snowflakes and Raindrops” by the Suburban Emergency Management Project.

The most active ice nucleators are biological in origin, declare Christner, et al. in their paper recently published in Science (February 29, 2008). (11) “This is important because the formation of ice in clouds is required for snow and most rainfall. Dust and soot particles can serve as ice nuclei, but biological ice nuclei are capable of catalyzing freezing at much warmer temperatures”, the researchers explain. (14) In other words, a mechanism exists whereby snowflakes and other precipitation can form when cloud temperatures in the troposphere are relatively warm.

Here’s the link, http://www.nonaiswa.org/wordpress/orgin-of-the-snowflakes/

and archived as a pdf: The_Biologic_Origin_of_Snowflakes_and_Raindrops

and here’s the referenced article (11): Ubiquity of Biological Ice Nucleators in Snowfall

See also Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice (pdf, archived here:  bg-12-4261-2015)
and a related article: From rain clouds to ‘hair ice’: how microscopic organisms engineer Earth’s climate
archived here: microscopic_organisms_engineer_climate.pdf

November 14, 2013

Trees Make Rain V – Uncovering the tricks of nature’s ice-seeding bacteria

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 8:01 pm
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64028_webLike the Marvel Comics superhero Iceman, some bacteria have harnessed frozen water as a weapon. Species such as Pseudomonas syringae have special proteins embedded in their outer membranes that help ice crystals form, and they use them to trigger frost formation at warmer than normal temperatures on plants, later invading through the damaged tissue. When the bacteria die, many of the proteins are wafted up into the atmosphere, where they can alter the weather by seeding clouds and precipitation.

Now scientists from Germany have observed for the first time the step-by-step, microscopic-level action of P. syringae‘s ice-nucleating proteins locking water molecules in place to form ice. More in the full article:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-10/aiop-utt102313.php

Archived as pdf here: Uncovering the tricks of nature’s ice-seeding bacteria

October 11, 2013

Trees Make Rain IV – Biotic Pump

mamberamo from the airIf you cut your forest, the winds will not blow from the ocean and will not bring you rain. Natural forests draw atmospheric moisture inland from the ocean in a positive feedback loop. This builds up precipitation inland, compensating for water lost through river flow and ultimately increasing river runoff due to the sustained low pressure area inland. Forests make rivers.

Much more at bioticregulation.ru

Archived here: Biotic_Pump.pdf

February 17, 2012

Fewer trees, less rain: study uncovers deforestation equation

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 11:02 pm
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(2005) Australian scientists say they have found proof that cutting down forests reduces rainfall. The finding, independent of previous anecdotal evidence and computer modelling, uses physics and chemistry to show how the climate changes when forests are lost, by analyzing variations in the molecular structure of rain along the Amazon River.

Not all water, Professor Henderson-Sellers said, was made from the recipe of two atoms of “common” hydrogen and one of “regular” oxygen. About one in every 500 water molecules had its second hydrogen atom replaced by a heavier version called deuterium. And one in every 6500 molecules included a heavy version of the oxygen atom.

Knowing the ratio allowed scientists to trace the Amazon’s water as it flowed into the Atlantic, evaporated, blew back inland with the trade winds to fall again as rain, and finally returned to the river. The study showed that since the 1970s the ratio of the heavy molecules found in rain over the Amazon and the Andes had declined significantly. The only possible explanation was that they were no longer being returned to the atmosphere to fall again as rain because the vegetation was disappearing. “With many trees now gone and the forest degraded, the moisture that reaches the Andes has clearly lost the heavy isotopes that used to be recycled so effectively,” Professor Henderson-Sellers said.

“This is the first demonstration that deforestation has an observable impact on rainfall.”

Original article (sydney morning herald)

(saved version: Fewer trees, less rain)

February 3, 2012

Trees Make Rain III – evaporation.

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 2:03 pm

Isotope studies have shown that almost all oceanic moisture falls as rain within the first 150 miles from any coast. All the rest of the rainfall on land is recycled water, evaporated from the land and the vegetation on it. Bare land such as sand or rock desert can only evaporate a small amount of the water before it runs off back to the sea. Farmland will hold a little, but the best reservoir is a forest.

A single oak tree may have ten to thirty acres of leaf surface, so forests are the best thing for ensuring that inland areas get rain. In fact, to destroy the Amazon forest, all we need to do is to chop down the first 200 miles, and we’re busy doing that now.

To reverse desertification, we have to start in those areas that receive the first rainfall. That’s why the Sahara Forest Project is starting in Morocco.

Relevant links:

Trees and the water cycle  (saved version: Trees and Their Effects on Rain)

Forests and water  (saved version: LWC_ Forests and Water)

The many roles of a tree  (saved version: The Many Roles of a Tree)

Trees Make Rain II – Bioprecipitation.

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 1:40 pm

Until relatively recently, most scientists thought rain was caused by mineral particles in the air which were just the right size for water (or ice) to condense around them. Research is beginning to show that a major factor in rain creation could be bacteria associated with plants. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioprecipitation

If this is true then it is yet another way in which forests create rain. A forest has a far greater plant surface area than farmland or desert.

February 1, 2012

Trees Make Rain I – Photographic Evidence.

Filed under: Desertification,Reforestation,Water — Direct Sponsor @ 10:54 pm

Above, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Top, Murdoch University

The image shows two views of the rabbit-proof fence, stretching aobut 2,000 miles across South-Western Australia. It separates off native land from farmland with the idea of keeping rabbits out.

Clouds form a lot more on the native side than the other, showing a correlation between farmland and decreased rainfall. That’s it really, but there are some speculations and other stuff in a NY Times article about it.

There is a research paper by Tom Lyons of Murdoch University, impact_of_clearing (pdf) which goes into detail, and an abstract of another paper: The role of land use change on the development and evolution of the west coast trough, convective clouds, and precipitation in southwest Australia on the JGR site

(And the fence, it doesn’t work, obviously — what kind of idiot would try to build a 2,000 mile long version of something they haven’t invented a one mile version of yet? And more to the point, what kind of idiot would pay them to do it? Oh, hang on, the kind of idiot that would chop all the trees down and expect to just keep on farming without them forever. The fence builders saw them coming didn’t they?!

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